China’s Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Education, released by the State Council on 10 January 2017, includes reference to plans to drive quality across China’s university system. Originally called World Class 2.0, these plans are now referred to as “Double First Class” or “shuāng yī liú”.
On 24 January 2017, the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) released a document called “Implementation measures to coordinate development of World-class Universities and First-class Disciplines Construction”, providing more detail on the “Double First Class” initiative.
The implementation measures set out targets for “Double First Class” in three steps:
The “Double First Class” project will run on a five-year cycle, in line with the Thirteenth Five Year Plan. Under the project, around 100 disciplines will be supported, including disciplines that are close to becoming world-class, those related to national security and vital interest, and emerging and interdisciplinary subjects. Disciplines that are urgently needed, support industry transformation and development, or support regional development will be given priority.
The implementation measures call for improvements in student exchange, credit transfer and qualifications recognition with world-class foreign universities, and encourage deeper academic exchange and scientific cooperation with foreign institutions. China is seeking to become more involved in setting international standards and regulations around academic and student mobility, as part of its goal to play a more influential global role in education (China and Australia are the only two countries to have ratified the Asia-Pacific Regional Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications in Higher Education (the Tokyo convention)).
China will establish a “Double First Class” professional committee, comprising government bodies, universities, research institutes and industry personnel. This committee will make recommendations for selection and participation of individual universities in the project, although the final decision on selection will rest with the MOE, MOF and NDRC. Successful universities will set individual plans, which will then receive approval at the State Council level (through the MOE, MOF and NDRC).
Central universities will be supported by central government finance, while provincial level universities included in the project will be supported by provincial government funding. Provincial governments are encouraged under the implementation measures to look for multiple ways to increase funding, policy and resources support for the project, including seeking support and resourcing from local communities and industry to establish long-term support mechanisms. The “Double First Class” project will include a dynamic adjustment mechanism so that universities that do not perform will be removed from the project.
According to the implementation measures, Chinese universities will be encouraged to rationalise and to classify themselves into different groups, based on their characteristics and functions. Hubei province has issued an implementation opinion exploring the possibility of merging and reorganizing its provincial higher education institutions, with an aim to have at least two universities among the best in the world by 2030. Shanghai and Shandong province have included similar initiatives to rationalise and reorganize in their plans, with Shanghai issuing a structural plan separating higher education institutions according to their function and type. Liaoning province has set a target to cut around 15 universities and 39 disciplines by 2020.
China is likely to see more university mergers and reorganisations in the future, to consolidate education resources and increase competitiveness in institutions under the “Double First Class” project.
To date, 21 provinces have issued their “Double First Class” plans, and so far 11 provinces have specified total funding exceeding RMB 40 billion. Guangdong province alone has set a target to raise RMB 5 billion over the period of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan, to support the construction of “Double First Class” institutions and disciplines in that province.
The full list of the sponsored universities and disciplines was published in September 2017, which includes 42 first class universities. Type A includes 36 universities and they are relatively stronger and more prestigious universities than the remaining six universities and 465 first class disciplines (spread among 140 schools including the first class universities). This plan replaces the Project 985 and Project 211.
The list is in the order given in the announcement of the Chinese Ministry of Education (by "school code").
Class A (36 universities)
Peking University (北京大学)
Renmin University of China (中国人民大学)
Tsinghua University (清华大学)
Beihang University (北京航空航天大学)
Beijing Institute of Technology (北京理工大学)
China Agricultural University (中国农业大学)
Beijing Normal University (北京师范大学)
Minzu University of China (中央民族大学)
Nankai University (南开大学)
Tianjin University (天津大学)
Dalian University of Technology (大连理工大学)
Jilin University (吉林大学)
Harbin Institute of Technology (哈尔滨工业大学)
Fudan University (复旦大学)
Tongji University (同济大学)
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (上海交通大学)
East China Normal University (华东师范大学)
Nanjing University (南京大学)
Southeast University (东南大学)
Zhejiang University (浙江大学)
University of Science and Technology of China (中国科学技术大学)
Xiamen University (厦门大学)
Shandong University (山东大学)
Ocean University of China (中国海洋大学)
Wuhan University (武汉大学)
Huazhong University of Science and Technology (华中科技大学)
Central South University (中南大学)
Sun Yat-sen University (中山大学)
South China University of Technology (华南理工大学)
Sichuan University (四川大学)
Chongqing University (重庆大学)
University of Electronic Science and Technology (电子科技大学)
Xi'an Jiaotong University (西安交通大学)
Northwestern Polytechnical University (西北工业大学)
Lanzhou University (兰州大学)
National University of Defense Technology (国防科技大学)
Class B (6 universities)
Northeastern University (东北大学)
Zhengzhou University (郑州大学)
Hunan University (湖南大学)
Yunnan University (云南大学)
Northwest A&F University (西北农林科技大学)
Xinjiang University (新疆大学)
Double first-class disciplines universities (95 universities)
Beijing Jiaotong University(北京交通大学)
Beijing University of Technology(北京工业大学)
University of Science & Technology Beijing(北京科技大学)
Beijing University of Chemical Technology(北京化工大学)
Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications(北京邮电大学）
Beijing Forestry University（北京林业大学）
Peking Union Medical College（北京协和医学院）
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine（北京中医药大学）
Capital Normal University（首都师范大学）
Beijing Foreign Studies University（北京外国语大学）
Communication University of China（中国传媒大学）
Central University of Finance and Economics（中央财经大学）
University of International Business and Economics（对外经济贸易大学）
China Foreign Affairs University（外交学院）
People's Public Security University of China（中国人民公安大学）
Beijing Sport University（北京体育大学）
Central Conservatory of Music（中央音乐学院）
China Conservatory of Music（中国音乐学院）
Central Academy of Drama（中央戏剧学院）
Central Academy of Fine Arts（中央美术学院）
China University of Political Science and Law（中国政法大学）
Tianjin Polytechnic University（天津工业大学）
Tianjin Medical University（天津医科大学）
Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine（天津中医药大学）
North China Electric Power University（华北电力大学）
Hebei University of Technology（河北工业大学）
Taiyuan University of Technology（太原理工大学）
Inner Mongolia University（内蒙古大学）
Dalian Maritime University（大连海事大学）
Northeast Normal University（东北师范大学）
Harbin Engineering University（哈尔滨工程大学）
Northeast Agricultural University（东北农业大学）
Northeast Forestry University（东北林业大学）
East China University of Science and Technology（华东理工大学）
Shanghai Ocean University(上海海洋大学)
Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine(上海中医药大学)
Shanghai International Studies University(上海外国语大学)
Shanghai University of Finance and Economics(上海财经大学)
Shanghai University of Sport(上海体育学院)
Shanghai Conservatory of Music(上海音乐学院)
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics(南京航空航天大学)
Nanjing University of Science and Technology(南京理工大学)
China University of Mining and Technology(中国矿业大学)
Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (南京邮电大学)
Nanjing Forestry University(南京林业大学)
Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology(南京信息工程大学）
Nanjing Agricultural University（南京农业大学）
Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine（南京中医药大学）
China Pharmaceutical University（中国药科大学)
Nanjing Normal University(南京师范大学)
China Academy of Art(中国美术学院)
Hefei University of Technology（合肥工业大学）
China University of Geosciences（中国地质大学）
Wuhan University of Technology（武汉理工大学）
Huazhong Agricultural University（华中农业大学）
Central China Normal University(华中师范大学)
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law(中南财经政法大学)
Hunan Normal University(湖南师范大学)
Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine（广州中医药大学）
South China Normal University（华南师范大学）
Southwest Jiaotong University（西南交通大学）
Southwest Petroleum University（西南石油大学）
Chengdu University of Technology（成都理工大学）
Sichuan Agricultural University（四川农业大学）
Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine（成都中医药大学）
Southwestern University of Finance and Economics（西南财经大学）
Shaanxi Normal University（陕西师范大学）
China University of Petroleum（中国石油大学）
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences（中国科学院大学)
Second Military Medical University(第二军医大学)
The Fourth Military Medical University（第四军医大学)
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